Alternans promotion in cardiac electrophysiology models by delay differential equations

TitleAlternans promotion in cardiac electrophysiology models by delay differential equations
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsGomes, Johnny M., Santos Rodrigo Weber dos, and Cherry Elizabeth M.
JournalChaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science

Cardiac electrical alternans is a state of alternation between long and short action potentials and is frequently associated with harmful cardiac conditions. Different dynamic mechanisms can give rise to alternans; however, many cardiac models based on ordinary differential equations are not able to reproduce this phenomenon. A previous study showed that alternans can be induced by the introduction of delay differential equations (DDEs) in the formulations of the ion channel gating variables of a canine myocyte model. The present work demonstrates that this technique is not model-specific by successfully promoting alternans using DDEs for five cardiac electrophysiology models that describe different types of myocytes, with varying degrees of complexity. By analyzing results across the different models, we observe two potential requirements for alternans promotion via DDEs for ionic gates: (i) the gate must have a significant influence on the action potential duration and (ii) a delay must significantly impair the gate's recovery between consecutive action potentials.